# Formulae

Phantasy Star Universe uses varying formulae to determine values for different processes in the game, such as Hit Rate or Damage.

## Damage Formulae

Player -> Enemy
MAX DAMAGE = floor(CRITICAL MOD * (((MAX ATTACK - VARIANCE) / 3.7) * PA MOD * ELEMENT MOD * (1.0 + ATTACK BUFF MOD)) * (1000 / (1000 + DEFENSE)) * (1.0 - DEFENSE BUFF MOD))
• MAX ATTACK is calculated by adding the player's ATP + weapon's ATP + unit's ATP + line shield's ATP. This also applies the same way to TP calculation.
• PA MOD is calculated by taking the PA's damage modifier (e.g. 150%) and dividing by 100, giving you 1.5 as the PA MOD.
• CRITICAL MOD is either 1.5 for a critical hit or 1.0 for a non-critical hit.
• ELEMENT MOD is calculated as (1+((5 + ELEMENT %) / 151.5)). If using TECHNICs, element is calculated as (1+((14 + ELEMENT % + TECH LV) / 151.5)). If an element is neutral, ELEMENT MOD is 1.0.
• BUFF MOD is calculated from the buffs and debuffs as straight addition or subtraction. (e.g. 1.0 + 0.11) = 1.11.
• DEFENSE is the enemy's calculated defense using base DFP multiplied by their own DFP modifier.
Enemy -> Player
MAX DAMAGE = floor((ATTACK MOD * ATTACK * PA MOD * ELEMENT MOD * (1.0 + ATTACK BUFF MOD) - DEFENSE) * 0.27 * (2000 / (2000 + DEFENSE)) * (1.0 - DEFENSE BUFF MOD))
• ATTACK MOD is the enemy's ATP or TP modifier.
• ATTACK is the enemy's base ATP or TP.
• PA MOD is only used for enemies if the enemy is using a TECHNIC. If not using a TECHNIC, PA MOD is 1.0.
• ELEMENT MOD is the player's line shield percentage, calculated as (1-((5 + ELEMENT %) / 151.5)).
• BUFF MOD is calculated the same way as the Player -> Enemy formula (e.g. 1.0 + 0.11 = 1.11).
• DEFENSE is the player's calculated defense.

## Variance

Variance is calculated by choosing a random number between (MAX DAMAGE) and (MIN DAMAGE) based on the variance of a weapon.

Variance
DAMAGE = random(MIN DAMAGE, MAX DAMAGE)

## Hit Rate

ATA is calculated by adding the Character's ATA + Line Shield's ATA + Unit's ATA + Weapon's ATA.
PA MOD is calculated as (PA Acc. MOD / 100).

Hit Rate
Hit Rate = (1 - Enemy EVP / (Player ATA * PA MOD * 10))
• You can multiply the result of this formula by 100 to get a percentage.